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However, such words were not at first recognized as borrowings, and as a result, in the mid-19th century experts both in Armenian and in Iranian, foremost among whom were Paul de Lagarde and F. reflecting the enormous progress that has been made since the turn of the century has become more and more pressing for both disciplines concerned, especially since H. Ačaṟyan, (Armenian etymological dictionary) 4 vols., Erevan, 1971-1979 (first mimeographed edition 1926-1935), is unreliable as far as the Iranian evidence is concerned. dialectological characteristics, as far as they are reflected in Arm. They shed light on the phonetic developments that took place in the Ir. They provide evidence relating to Ir., and especially Mid. As is well known, there are in the basically Southwest-Ir. elements, incorporated mainly in Arsacid times, and on the other hand also a certain number of Southwest-Ir. dialects from Sasanian times, as in the case of Man. In this respect the book by Bolognesi, 1960, where all the most important dialectological features reflected in Armenian are discussed in great detail, is in every way a model. 24 established a connection of this phenomenon with the Iranian southwest, Benveniste, 1964, p. A third position was adopted by Périkhanian, 1968, pp. Thus, the Parthians came into close contact with the Armenians only after having spread over Northwest Iran in the second half of the second century B. They thus contributed much to the extinction of the old “Median” or “Atropatenian” dialect spoken there, a dialect apparently closely related to their own language. Most obvious is the case of Indian or Aramaic/Syriac words. Such indirect borrowing of Greek words via Parthian often can not be established unambiguously (as e.g. 124, that these cases of coincidence between the Arm. stem classes are to be explained as restored from derivatives or compounds in which the stem vowel could have been readily preserved. borrowed those forms when their final syllables had already been shortened in Ir., that is, in their typically Mid. form, and that the loss of the final syllables seen in the Arm. This process depended for its success on widespread bilingualism. influence have been brought to light only in recent times, mainly by Bolognesi (see Bolognesi, 1961; 1962a; 1966, pp. On the other hand, however, there are those names of Ir. studies as well, since they have become fully integrated within the Arm. The borrowing of personal names of foreign origin from other peoples is always conditioned by cultural matters and based upon something like an onomastic fashion.

Müller, concluded that Armenian belongs to the Iranian group of languages. Hübschmann proved that Armenian is an independent branch of the IE. The revolutionary element in Hübschmann’s procedure was that according to him Arm. forms in phonetic shape were suspect of being loanwords and could therefore not safely be regarded as genuine Arm. It was due to this methodological principle, which only gradually gained universal acceptance, that Hübschmann became the significant pioneer in the study of Ir. As for the prospects of realizing such a project see Considine, 1979, pp. Later research has in many cases confirmed the Iranian origin of Arm. loanwords in Armenian apparently increased during the Arsacid period, since their Northwest-Ir. loanwords were often borrowed into other neighboring languages, such as Syriac and Arabic, as well. word can only be derived from the Manichean Parthian form, but that within Parthian the only or the best evidence is provided by the Manichean texts, which in some cases actually have forms showing later phonetic developments.) Subsequent research in the field of Ir. dialect group, which is on the whole the more conservative one, are the following: 1. loanwords, have been studied most systematically by G. But the study of the Armenian loans from Iranian is of vital importance for solving problems of Old, Middle, and New Iranian linguistics, as well. They help determine the exact phonetic shape of the (Middle) Iranian words, which in the Iranian texts is often obscured by the consonantal writing systems. alphabet, however, is fully vocalized, though it does not show the original vowel quantity. They enable us to establish the exact meaning of the Ir. languages and thus aid in reconstructing linguistic stages not known or not sufficiently known from the Ir. Among the many questions that have not yet received an answer are the following: 1. 3 objected strongly to that view and instead regarded these names as belonging to a particular epic tradition, which he considered to be Northeast-Ir. 24f., who, arguing from analogous cases, thought of traditional Median names taken over by the Armenians from the “Middle Median” language of Northwest Iran, which, however, is not attested in an authentic source. This “Middle Median” dialect (see above), whose country bordered on that of Armenian, is virtually unknown. also in the case of “(shoe) last, model.” Certainty can be obtained also where one and the same word was borrowed twice; once directly from Greek in a form corresponding to the Greek original, and a second time indirectly, after passing through Parthian and attested in another form similar to that known in Iranian. origin that really were taken over by the Armenians, were borne by Armenian people and remained in use among them, partly till today. The situation may be compared with that obtaining in the feudal societies of the European Middle Ages. However, Nalbandyan’s work not only confuses the name of Iranians in Armenian sources with Ir.

C.; we find the first attestation of the name of the country in OPers. D.: Western Armenia came under the rule of the Romans and later the Byzantines, whereas the far greater eastern part of the country, the so-called “Great Armenia” or the “Persarmenia” of the Byzantine historiographers, came under Persian control and was fully annexed by Bahrām V Gōr some years later, in 428 A.

Junker’s interest in exotic scripts and in languages in general inspired him to take up Iranian studies.

During that period the culture of the Parthian feudal aristocracy, being superior to that of the Armenians, exerted profound influence on them. Moreover, Périkhanian considered that many of the Northwest-Ir. This approach appears to be correct in principle but it is difficult to work out the details because of the scanty evidence available for the older Iranian dialects. The most likely explanation seems to be Henning’s proposal (1958, p. Sometimes a long series of compounds of the same kind was borrowed and through imitation of such models (analogy) certain first or second compositional elements were reduced to the status of mere prefixes or suffixes, which could be attached to inherited as well as to borrowed words. The vast extent of this borrowing process reflects once again the fact that there were over the ages often very close historical and cultural contacts between these two countries and peoples.; Modern research in this field began with Hübschmann, who compiled a list of 217 entries concerned with Iranian names found in Armenian sources: see the first section of his grammar, 1897, pp. His list was necessarily far from complete and his interpretations are by no means final but his work has had a kind of monopoly until the present day.

Accordingly, most of the linguistic borrowings came into Armenian from the Northwest Iranian language of the Parthians in a way comparable to the overwhelming French influence on English after the Norman conquest. lexicology and lexicography as it contains many words, some of which survive right down to the present day, not attested in the Ir. loanwords in Armenian that are usually regarded as being from Parthian, are to be attributed in fact to an older stratum, a “Middle Median,” layer, although these words presented none of those peculiarly Med. Similar problems are presented by the connections between Armenian and East Iranian languages, which have been remarked on repeatedly since Gauthiot 1916. 93) that we have to do here with elements of the so-called “Parnian” language, the virtually unknown language of the East Iranian conquerors of Parthia, which was brought to Parthia by the Parni but abandoned in favor of Parthian after it had been enriched by East Iranian elements. “Law of final syllables.” The nominal compounds of Ir. Having thus become grammaticalized, they became productive. These are mostly technical terms from geographical and botanical literature, as “Chinese wood.” Clearly this was merely a lexical process and the construction as such has no morphological function in Armenian. In Hübschmann’s list as well as in Ačaṟyan’s onomasticon (Ačaṟyan, 1942-1962) and in Nalbandyan’s dissertation, no distinction is made between two groups of names which should in fact have been kept separate.

These lists represent a milestone in Armeno-Iranian scholarship and still today are of fundamental importance, but they are far from complete. The subsequent investigation of these problems is accordingly closely connected with the advances made in Iranian studies that have to a large extent followed upon the well-known extensive archeological discoveries. The first to prove that Parthian was the source of many Arm. Thus, a word like - “neat, smart,” but has no counterpart in other IE. consonant shift and the problems involved see especially de Lamberterie, 1978, pp. In view of the important role played by “paradises” in Achaemenid Iran (note Gk. On the other hand the existence of ancient borrowings dating back as far as the time of the Median Empire, as assumed by Frye, 1969, pp. 528ff.) It is thus clear that a merely quantitative and statistical assessment of the loanwords is inadequate. The majority of these Parthian loanwords were, however, undoubtedly borrowed in a “Late Old Parthian” or rather an “Early Middle Parthian” period. This analysis is restricted to a semantic classification of the most important and best attested Ir. Thus they can be assumed to reflect faithfully the phonetic values of Arsacid Parthian. It is perhaps surprising to find markedly Zoroastrian and by the same token non-Christian names like -) used by Christian people or even monks. (with several subdivisions according to the syntactical relations between the two elements of the compound) and the new formations derived from those names by the addition of special hypocoristic suffixes to mutilated parts of them.

Indeed, completion could not have been attained at that time since relatively little was then known about OIr. In particular, the discovery of many new texts in several Mid. languages, and thus also the understanding of the vocabularies of those languages, has made it possible to recognize many more Arm. and to define more exactly the material already known. 213, has called attention to the fact that Hübschmann was unable to provide Mid. evidence for more than forty percent of those words which he himself regarded as Ir. Of particular importance here are the new findings in the field of Ir. languages, could be assumed to be a loanword from Iranian even if no Iranian evidence for such a word were found. Similar problems arise in connection with a number of words that have been lost in Iranian and preserved only in Armenian (see Bolognesi, 1977, pp. belong to one and the same layer is to be expected a priori because of the long period of Ir.-Arm. - “enclosure”), such a borrowing is in fact easily understandable, even though in view of the phonological difficulties presented by the word it may be preferable to regard it as an indirect borrowing. loanwords, namely those found in the Bible translation. A chronological difference lies behind the divergent treatment of Ir. in such cases reflects the phonetic state of some Western Mid. When proper names are borrowed they do not usually undergo any change of form but if they do it is usually a slight change that remains fixed. It applies equally to the likewise inherited one-stem names, which had only one word stem originally.

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